Slide #328

Schöner's Globes
Johann Schöner
The Weimar Globe is the terrestrial globe for which Schöner is believed to have written the tract Luculentissima quædam Terræ totius Descriptio printed in 1515, and which could not be copied or counterfeited without incurring a heavy penalty: "With a cosmographical Globe: under a fine of Five Hundred Rhenish florins, and forfeiting all copies."

Johann Schöner constructed a number of globes, several of which sold with a descriptive tract like the one above mentioned, and from which we know that spheres were executed by him in 1515,1523 and 1533. But it is certain that he made other globes, as there is one in existence dated 1520, bearing his signature and own explanations. The probability is that we possess still others, which must be sought among the anonymous globes which have lately come to light. The only practical mode to classify those cartographical documents and show their affinity, is to compare the configurations and nomenclatures, taking as a basis the globe of 1520, which was undoubtedly constructed by Schöner.

Limiting our analysis to the New World, we first notice that it is chiefly represented by two continental lands, separated by a sea, placed between the tropic of Cancer and the equator, in about 10° north latitude.

The northern section extends from that parallel to 51°, and the southern, from the latter to 46° south latitude. As to the South American continent, it assumes the form of a triangle, the apex of which constitutes the northern shore of a nameless and narrow passage, which causes the Occidentis Oceanus to communicate with the Oceanus orientalis. Concerning that strait, it is necessary to call attention to the Copia der Newen Zeitung auss Presillg Landt, which was first printed at Augsburg, and contains this curious statement:

Learn also that on the twelfth day of the month of October, a ship from Brazil has come here, owing to its being short of provisions. The vessel had been equipped by Nono [sic pro Nuño] and Christopher de Haro, in partnership with other [merchants].
Two of those ships were intended to explore and describe the country of Brazil, with the permission of the King of Portugal. In fact, they have given a description of an extent of coasts, from six to seven hundred leagues, concerning which nothing was known before.
They reached the Cape of Good Hope, which is a point extending into the ocean, very similar to, Nort Assril [i.e., very similar to the point of Africa?], and one degree still further. When they had attained the altitude of the fortieth degree, they found Brazil, which had a point extending into the sea. They have sailed around that point, and ascertained that the country lay, as in the south of
Europe, entirely from east to west. It is as if one crossed the Strait of Gibraltar to go east in ranging the coast of Barbary.

After they had navigated for nearly sixty leagues to round the Cape, they again sighted the continent on the other side, and steered towards the northwest. But stormy weather [or a storm] prevented them from making any headway. Driven away by the Tramontane, or north wind, they retraced their course, and returned to the country of Brazil.

Harrisse discusses the above statement chiefly because it is the basis of the opinion entertained by several writers, that the great austral passage was known, and had been crossed before Magellan discovered the strait which bears his name. That description must have also prompted Schöner to adopt the pyramidal configuration which he imparted, so far back as 1515, to the termination of the South American continent.

Dr. Wieser, in his very valuable disquisition on this important point of the history of maritime discovery, has shown by copious extracts from the Luculentissma descriptio and from the Copia der newen Zeitung, that Schöner had read and been influenced by the German tract. But there were doubtless other reasons for depicting the strait, such for instance as sprung from the a priori belief that the New World was separated from the Old by the Oceanus orientalis, and the cartographical necessity arising therefrom. Else, we would have to assume that the Hauslab gores and the mappamundi of Stobnicza (Slide #316 ), both of which give likewise the pyramidal form to South America, also borrowed the notion from that or a similar account. What is certain, however, is the fact that Schöner has imagined from the Copia to call the alleged austral continent Brasilie Regio, and that he is the originator of the latter erroneous designation, which continued to mar so many maps of the sixteenth century.

Reverting to the globe itself, it must be noted that the name America is inscribed across the southern continent. As to the configurations of the northern, they have been borrowed from the northwestern continental region in a map akin to Canerio (Slide #310); which modified Cantino by an elongation of the coast southwards, with profiles of a peculiar kind. In Schöner that continuation bears the name of Parias, which indicates that it was considered as representing the country discovered by Columbus in the course of his third voyage. In the Green Globe (Slide #331.3), which is unquestionably Schönerean, instead of Parias, we read there and on the southern continent, the name America. The nomenclature is the same as in Canerio, omitting, however, twenty of the latter's designations. But what proves that Schöner did not work on a prototype absolutely Canerian, is the fact that he has inserted along the American coast, not less than fifteen names which are not in Canerio, although nine of these figure in Ruysch, viz.:

Lixleo C. de frado Rio de foroseco
Terra sura Terra de parias Rio de les Euas
Monte rotonda Curtana S. Rochij
R. de la reno Rio de flagranza S. Maria de rabida
G. de paxi P. de Arena S. Maria

The West India archipelago, with Cuba, called Isabella, is represented in the form peculiar to all of the Portuguese and what Harrisse has termed the Lusitano-Germanic maps. In fact, Schöner's American configurations and nomenclature have been copied servilely from one of the latter, which perhaps already imparted the pyramid form to the southern continent, as can be inferred from the Hauslab Globe No.1. His innovations, thus far, seem consist of certain legends, and the insertion of the austral continent, which can have originated only with a savant. In fact, his Brasilia Regio is the southern zone, or Antichthon of the poet Marcus Manilius, of Pomponius Mela, and of all the cosmographers of the Middle Ages, who believed in the existence of that region, south of the torrid zone, but from which it was separated by a sea. At all events, it is in Schöner's globe of 1515, that we, thus far, see an austral land for the first time.

We had entertained the thought that the Nuremberg mathematician always considered America as a mere continuation of Asia. This belief was derived from the opinion which he so forcibly expressed in the Opusculum of 1533. And, although unable to account for the contradiction existing between such a theory and his graphic descriptions as exhibited in the globes of 1515 and 1520, the idea did not strike us that we might perhaps solve the problem simply by consulting Schöner's Luculentissima descriptio, which, as already stated, he wrote to elucidate the globe of 1515; and it is only a few days since, thanks to the kindness of the learned custodians of the Munich Royal Library, that we have been enabled to ascertain the truth.

Now, we were entirely mistaken. Schöner, in 1515 and 1520, was no exception to all the cosmographers of Central Europe in those years; and, like every one of them, he believed that the northwestern continental land in the Lusitanian and Lusitano-Germanic maps or globes represented the American regions, and that these regions were absolutely distinct and entirely separated, north and south, from Asia. Here are Schöner's own words:

In this way it is ascertained that the earth is divided into four parts, and the first three parts are continents, that is, mainlands; but the fourth [part] is an island, because we see it surrounded on all sides by the sea.

And that there should be no misunderstanding as to the "Fourth Part," the above quotation is found in the chapter of the Luculentissima descriptio entitled: De America, quarta orbis parte. Nor is that all. In examining the configuration meant to represent the New World in the globes of 1515 and 1520 the reader will notice, as Harrisse points out, that the main part of the northern section bears in large letters the name Parias. Schöner describes that region in the above-mentioned work as follows:

The island of Parias, which is not a part or portion of the said country, but a large special portion of the earth in that fourth part of the world

Nor do we find anywhere in that tract any reference to a supposed cosmographical connection between Asia and America. Although the activity of cartographers, particularly in Germany, during the first quarter of the sixteenth century has been much greater than is generally supposed, and there were many map-makers whose names have not reached us, and who doubtless copied, counterfeited, or were inspired by models which met more or less with the favor of the public, we feel constrained, for the present, to qualify as "Schönerean globes" all those which answer the above description. But as Johann Schöner, who was born in 1477, lived until 1547, and therefore may have constructed globes during fifty years, whilst among those which can be ascribed to him only one is dated, we will classify these in taking as a basis the degree of finish and number of names and legends which these globes exhibit. This, we must confess, is not conclusive, as in our opinion the model used by Schöner for the globes which he constructed previous, at least, to the year 1523, was the same for all, whilst the more complete character of the one dated 1520 is due simply to its size and a greater amount of labor which the cartographer was disposed to bestow. But we could devise no better basis for our classification.

The crudest and least complete of those Schönerean globes is the present one, which is preserved in the Grand-Ducal Library at Weimar. It has been facsimiled by Dr. Wieser, who has also ably advocated the connection of that globe with the Luculentissima descriptio. We have no other reason for ascribing to it the date of 1515. Its diameter is 270 mm.

Schöner's Model Globe.
This is the globe which a Spaniard sent to some gentleman (in Nuremberg ?), and which Schöner used for making his own globe of 1523:

Wishing to add something to this marvellous exploration of the earth, so that what seems wonderful when read shall appear more likely when seen with the eyes, I have endeavoured to make this globe in following a perfect model which a Spaniard has obligingly sent to a gentleman . . .

Schöner's Timiripa Globe.
In 1523, Johann Schöner wrote a small tract bearing this title:

An epistle from Johann Schöner, of Carlstadt, concerning the islands and regions recently discovered by command of the Most Serene Kings of Castile and Portugal, and a Geographical Globe to the use of persons wishing to annotate the course of those navigations

That tract is dated from a place which the author calls Timiripa, in the year 1523: Millesimo quingentesimo uigesimotertio. Do we possess, either in the shape of a sphere, or as mere engraved gores, the globe mentioned in the above title ? According to Harrisse, there is not the slightest evidence, or indication of any kind, that we possess that globe, or the gores which served to make it.
Gores of a globe 710 by 310 mm. were published in reduced facsimile, from a printed woodcut, at Munich in 1885. These, on several occasions, have been positively stated to be the identical gores which were used to construct the globe announced by Schöner in 1523, on the title of his Timiripa tract. The statement is absolutely erroneous according to Harrisse; he attemts to prove that those gores are not the work of Schöner, nor derived from any of his globes, maps, or even geographical notions by the following argument.

It must be first stated that the original woodcut, from which the reprint was made recently, does not bear the date of 1523, or the name of Schöner. On the contrary it is entirely anonymous and dateless. On the contrary, there is no special extrinsic sign permitting those gores to be ascribed to the Nuremberg mathematician, or to connect them with the above mentioned Timiripa pamphlet, or any other work written by him in 1523, before or afterwards, on the banks of the Ehrenbach or elsewhere. Nor can anyone justly pretend to recognize, either in the delineations or lettering, the style of Schöner; for nothing can be more different from the globes which that savant has described, depicted, caligraphed, or caused to be engraved and printed at any time.
It follows that the averment can only be a personal inference, or a fancied deduction. In the present instance, the chief argument presented in support of the asseveration is that the above-mentioned pamphlet refers, for details concerning adventures experienced, and extraordinary men and animals seen by Magellan, to the Epistle of Maximilianus Transylvanus, which cites certain geographical names that are also on the Munich gores.

The simple fact that Schöner refers to the Epistle of Maximilianus, and that brief designations mentioned in the latter figure in the gores, is hardly a proof that these gores were made by Schöner. Maximilianus' Epistle was printed at Cologne in January, 1523, and frequently since. As it made known everywhere the great discovery of the Strait, other cosmographers and globe makers than Schöner may have used the same data. In fact, for several years the geographers in Central Europe had no other means of information on the subject; and globes constructed in or after 1523 may well have borrowed their nomenclature for the Moluccas, and for Magellan's voyage, from that Epistle, without our being obliged to limit such a borrowing to the globe made by Schöner in that year.
Let us now examine those gores intrinsically. They are alleged to have been drawn in 1523, and to be based upon a Spanish map sent from Spain to Germany.

In reply, everyone who is conversant with Spanish discoveries and cartographical methods will hesitate to admit that a map made in Spain so early as 1523, could present the northeastern configurations exhibited in those gores. The chief reason is that at Seville, in 1523, they did not yet possess such geographic data, and the Casa de Contratacion was not accustomed to mar its charts with hypothetical notions. The gores set forth a continuous coast line extending from La Florida to the Baccalaos, with that peculiar and excessive trend eastward which is one of the distinctive traits of the Spanish maps constructed after the discoveries of Estevam Gomez (1525); the earliest specimen of which, known at this day, is the Weimar 1527 chart. Now there is only one Spanish expedition sent to our east coast, before 1523, which could have yielded some cartographical information concerning the country north of the Floridian peninsula. It is the slave-hunting raid of Ayllon and Matienzo in 1521; and it was absolutely limited to a single point of the coast, by 33° 30' north latitude. Nor is it likely to have been followed by an invoice to Spain of cartographical documents concerning such an expedition.

In 1527 they certainly possessed in Spain notions about Peru, but as the information, cartographically speaking, was vague, we do not yet see the Peruvian coast depicted in the Weimar map of that date. In 1529, after the expeditions of Pizarro and Almagro, a cosmographer like Ribero (Slide #332) could not but come to the conclusion that the Pacific coast extended northwards from the point where Magellan had left it to sail in search of the Moluccas. Yet, in his map of 1529, the Chilian seaboard is entirely blank. So with the Turin map north of Florida, which had not yet been explored by Gomez, but which was suspected to be connected with the Baccalaos.

True it is that the Spanish Government had been informed and believed, ever since the first expedition of John Cabot, that there was west of Cuba, a continent which stretched from a high point at the north to a very low point at the south. But it laid no claim to that country, which was then considered to be barren, and chiefly within the Portuguese line of demarcation. It is therefore only in Lusitanian charts and their Germanic derivatives, that in the first quarter of the sixteenth century we see the continental coast depicted, excepting always the La Cosa planisphere of 1500 (Slide #308), which does not seem to have found imitators in Spain; and which, besides, depicts the northeast coast in a form entirely different from that of the Munich gores and of the Weimar charts. And if the reader wishes to form an idea of the appearance of Spanish maps made between the voyage of Magellan and the exploration of the north-east coast by Gomez, he has only to examine the elaborate Turin map, which ignores all lands whatever north of Florida.

Be that as it may, whether the Spanish model did or did not present an unbroken coast line north of the equator, or any coast at all, we are in a position to demonstrate that such a configuration as is depicted for the northern region in the Munich gores, was not adopted by Schöner, nor inserted in the globe which he constructed in 1523.

This is proved by his own, although very succinct, mention of that globe, as we find it in the tract above described; and where he expressly states that his new globe differed from the preceding one made by him, only as regards the geographical facts recently disclosed by the voyage of Magellan. After describing the discovery accomplished by that great navigator, his untimely death, and the appointment of his successor to command the squadron on the homeward trip, Schöner continues as follows:

After sailing in various directions, so that no portion of the route should remain unexplored, he returned to Spain, arriving December 6th, one thousand five hundred and twenty-two, with [only] one ship and eighteen men, the rest having been swallowed up by the sea. As regards their marvellous adventures, and the wonderful men and animals seen by them, Your Worship will obtain information by reading at length the Epistle concerning the Molucca islands addressed by Maximilian of Transylvania to the Cardinal Archbishop of Salzburg. Wishing to add somewhat to this marvelous exploration of the earth, so that what seems wonderful when read, shall appear more likely when seen with the eyes, I have tried to make this globe an imitation of a perfect model which a Spaniard has sent to a gentleman. Withal, I meant not to set aside my former globe as it exhibited all which men then were permitted to learn regarding hidden portions of the world; it has been faithfully reproduced, so far as concordant, so that things formerly discovered should not be at variance with those which have since been found . . . .

It is impossible to express one's intentions in clearer language. As to the preceding globe to which Schöner alludes, and which, he says, was modified only in so far as was necessary to insert the geographical results of Magellan's voyage, it is the globe constructed and signed by him in 1520, which we still possess. Now, what are the configurations of this globe of 1520 ? Taking certain countries which were beyond the range of Magellan's discovery, and which we must infer from Schöner's own declarations remained untouched, do they exhibit the continuous coast line which in the Munich gores connects North with South America, and sets forth an unbroken seaboard from Labrador to Brazil ?

The globe of 1520 exhibits instead, at the north, the Lusitano-Germanic configuration which Schöner had adopted ever since he commenced constructing spheres. In other words, he separates entirely the northern from the southern continent in the latitude of 10° north; and thus remains faithful to a peculiar delineation which dates from the beginning of, the sixteenth century. The globe of 1523 therefore must have reproduced, north of the equatorial line, the configurations of the globe of 1520; not only for the reasons which we have just derived from Schöner's own expressions, but because his model map could furnish him new data only concerning the southern continent. Magellan first sighted America when off Cape St. Augustine, by about 8° south latitude; whence he navigated southwards until he reached the Strait. And as to the Strait, it is not likely to have been placed in the Bay of St. Julia (Sinus Juliana), as in the Munich gores, but seven degrees further south; with some legend recalling the discovery accomplished by Magellan, and which prompted Schöner to construct his globe of 1523, and to write his Timiripa tract. Still less would Schöner have included Cuba among the northernmost Lucayas, and left anonymous the true delineation of that island. Senotormus for Temistitan, Mederaor Madera, Espaliola for Española and Brisiliri for Brasilieri, will doubtless also appear to be strange spelling on the part of such a learned geographer as Schöner was. We are inclined to see in those gores a late derivative of the map consulted by Gemma Phrysius for constructing the mappamundi which he has added to his numerous editions of the Cosmographia of Apianus, and so often copied. After crossing the newly discovered passage, none of his ships ranged the Pacific coast higher than the 40th south parallel. It follows that a Spanish map of 1522-1523, constructed to illustrate the voyage of Magellan, limited its cartographical innovations to the apex of the continent. of South America. And we should not forget that it was the discovery of the Strait alone which prompted Johann Schöner to modify his globe of 1520. This close chain of facts and deductions lacks, nevertheless, one more link to amount to an absolute proof, owing to a very peculiar and unexpected aberration which arose in the mind of the Nuremberg mathematician.

Up to that time, as is shown by the globe of 1520, Schöner had shared the opinion of all cosmographers regarding the separation believed to exist, and clearly depicted in the Lusitano-Germanic maps and spheres, between the New and the Old World, and which he had been propagating with the utmost zeal. But the Epistle of Maximilianus Transylvanus caused him to alter his views entirely in that respect. By what process of reasoning he came to consider that the discovery of the new route to the Moluccas proved the existence of an absolute cosmographic connection between America and Asia is a mystery to us. That egregious error is set forth in the Opusculum of 1533, but it dates from 1523, as can be seen in the third of the following extracts.

He first identifies Mexico and its surrounding regions with Quinsay, after locating them in Upper India:

By a very long circuit westward, starting from Spain, there is a land called Mexico and Temistitan in Upper India, which in former times was called Quinsay; that is, the City of Heaven, in the language of the country

Then, criticizing opinions ascribed to Vespuccius, Schöner says:

Yet Americus Vespucius, in ranging in his navigation the coasts of Upper India, from Spain to the West, thought that the said part, which is connected with Upper India, was an island, which he caused to be called after his own name. But now other hydrographers, of a more recent date, have found that that land [i.e., South America] and others beyond, constitute a continent, which is Asia; and thus did they reach as far as the Molucca islands in Upper India.

And to show in a still more forcible light Schöner's geographical ideas concerning the alleged complete connection between America and Asia, as well as the real source of his belief on the subject, and the time when he conceived such a notion, we cannot do better than reproduce the whole of his most surprising account of the newly-discovered countries.

Concerning the regions outside Ptolemy:

The regions which are outside Ptolemy's description have not been transmitted to us by authorities not quite as certain, nor have they been described with as much care. At the east, all that which Is beyond the country of the Chinese and 180° longitude, has remained entirely unknown to Ptolemy. But after Ptolemy, beyond 180°, towards the east, numerous regions have been discovered by one Marco Polo, a Venetian, and others. And in our days the Genoese Columbus and Americus Vespuccius reach those shores, after having sailed from Spain across the Western Ocean, and visit them, thinking that this part of the world is an island. They called it America, the fourth part of the globe. But very lately, thanks to the recent navigations accomplished in the year 1519 A.C., by Magellan, the commander of the squadron of the invincible Emperor, the divine Charles, & c., towards the Molucca islands, which some call Malaquas, which are situate in the extreme east, it has been ascertained that the said country (that is, America) was the continent of Upper India, which is a portion of Asia, where are immense kingdoms, great rivers, and numerous marvels, which we have described above, at least partially. Here are the countries of that region, viz.: Bachalaos, thus called from a new species of fish. There is also the Bergi region, a large flowery country; the desert of Lop and the city of the same name in 213° 20', 43°; the province of Tamacho; Sucur [the present province of Kan-sou], Sampa or Zampa [Zampa, Zapa and Campa]; Cavul; Tangut; Cuschin; Cathay, also called Chulmana, the province of St. Michael; Mesigo, which is the country of Mexico; the principle city, situate on the shore of a large lake, is Temistita, in former times called Quinsay, by 226 °20,' 21° longitude; the Raylmana and Zebequi countries; then, towards the west, Temiscanata, Parias, Darien, Urabe, Pariona the Cannibals, and innumerable other regions.

And Schöner did not limit himself to printed explanations; he constructed globes to make his opinion clearer, one of which was made in 1533, for the Prince John Frederick of Saxony, where the two worlds, Asia and America, in accordance with those geographical ideas, are completely blended together, north of the equator, while Mexico is exhibited as a dependency of Cathay. The consequences of those facts are twofold:

If Schöner altered his graphic representations of Asia and America for the first time in the globe of 1533, then the globe of 1523 must have exhibited north of the equator the insular configurations of the globe of 1520, and continued therefore to disconnect Parias and North America from the South American regions.

If, on the contrary, Schöner introduced at once in his globe of 1523, the geographical notions which he expressly says he derived from the account of the voyage of Magellan, then that globe must have connected America with Asia precisely as it is between the equator and the tropic of Cancer in the globe of 1533.

Now, when examining the western hemisphere in the Munich gores, we should naturally expect that, north of the equator, one or the other of those two styles of configurations would appear; but we do not see either of them, nor any indication of the kind.

Not only do the Munich gores delineate the entire American continent unbroken, east and west, from the Baccalaos to the Strait of Magellan, but they depict the Pacific coast as a continuous line from the outlet of the Magellanic passage, to a point which nearly corresponds on modern maps with British Colombia And there the western seaboard forms an elbow, which is made to stretch, not westward, as it should according to Schöner's expressed notions, but eastward, continuing uninterruptedly to the Atlantic Ocean. That is, the American continent is represented entire, and completely disconnected both from Asia and from the Arctic regions; setting forth at its northern extremity a wide channel which runs in a straight line from west to east, and connects the Pacific with the Atlantic. Then, beyond a wide ocean, westward of America, and absolutely distinct from the latter, we find another continent, bearing the usual Asiatic legends about Cathay and Mangi, exhibiting besides the peninsula of India.

Those configurations prove conclusively that in the opinion of the cartographer who made the Munich gores, the New World did not consist of immense insular regions, cast into the Atlantic, far away from the South American Continent, as in Schöner's globes of 1515 and 1520. Still less did he believe that America was absolutely connected with Asia, and a mere continuation of the latter, as we see it elaborately depicted in Schöner's globe of 1533.

We subjoin to these pages an exact copy of the western hemisphere in Schöner's globe of 1533, and, opposite, a facsimile of the Munich gores; leaving the reader to complete the comparison by resorting to Ghillany's facsimile of the globe of 1520. By placing the Munich gores between those two globes, it will be seen at a glance that the same cosmographer cannot have constructed in 1523 a sphere with gores resembling those of Munich; and ten years later, the globe of 1533. In the Munich gores, America is delineated as an absolutely separate continent. In Schöner's globe, on the contrary, the west coast of America is represented as continuing from the equator westward to beyond the Malacca peninsula and India without a single break; thus making of the two worlds one solid mass; and of the empire of Mexico a portion and tributary of China !

If we did not possess Schöner's own statement as to the groundless inferences which led him to alter in 1523 his cosmographical ideas concerning the relative position of Asia and America; and if the Munich gores were represented to be some work made by Schöner in 1533, whilst the globe of 1533 would be considered, on the contrary, as having been constructed only in 1523, then the supposition that the Munich gores were the work of Schöner might perhaps be entertained; for these evince unquestionably a progress in geographical knowledge. But with the facts which we have laid before the reader, it stands to reason that Johann Schöner never did, and never could, construct in 1523 a globe exhibiting the northwestern American configurations of the Munich gores; all asseverations to the contrary notwithstanding.

The distinctive trait of Schöner's globe of 1533 is the blending, near the equator, of America with Asia. The Timiripa pamphlet shows that the notion originated with him in 1523, on hearing of the discovery of the strait by Magellan, and of his having reached the Molucca islands by that route. These two postulates lead to the belief that the globe which Schöner constructed in 1523, and for which he wrote the Timiripa pamphlet, already exhibited that configuration. We now find an important series of globes and cordiform maps, all based upon this Asiatico-American combination, and which made its appearance in Central Europe between 1525 and 1531. The delineations and nomenclature of all those cartographical monuments is so similar that the critic can only consider them as derivatives from, at the most, one or two prototypes, which must be traced to Schöner's globe of 1523, although this is lost, and we can ascertain its geographical characteristics solely by deductions. For these inferences, we refer the reader to other monographs; and for correlative data, to the descriptions of the Carondelet, Franciscus Monachus, Gilt, Weimar, Nancy and Wooden globes, and to the cordiform maps of Orontius Finæus, infra, under the years 1526, 1528, 1531, and 1536.

LOCATION: Germanisches Nationalmuseum in Nuremberg.

SIZE: 20.3 x 15.3

Brown, L.A., The World Encompassed, No. 73
*Dekker, E. & an der Krogt, P., Globes, p. 23.
*Fernandez-Armesto, F., Atlas of World Exploration, p. 49 , Figure G (color)
*Fite F., & Freeman, A., A Book Of Old Maps, p. 33, No. 10
*Harrisse, H., The Discovery of North America, pp. 371-3, 484-8, 490-2, 506-7,519-28, 592-4
Hennig, R. "The Representation on Maps of the Magalhaes Straits before their Discovery",
Imago Mundi V
, 1948.
*Nordenskiöld, A.E., Facsimile Atlas, pp. 78-80
Shirley, R.W., The Mapping of the World, p. 45, #41
*Stevens, E.L., Globes, pp. 76, 83,86; Figures 42, 43, 44
*Tooley, R.V., "The Strait that never was", TMC, Issue 2, p. 5
*Winsor, J., Narrative and Critical; History of America, vol. II, pp. 117, 214.
*Wolff, H., pp. 30, 48, Fig.5

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